Portuguese developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from the spoken Latin language brought there by Roman soldiers and colonists starting in the 3rd century BC. The language began to differentiate itself from other Romance languages after the fall of the Roman Empire and the barbarian invasions in the 5th century. It started to be used in written documents around the 9th century, and by the 15th century it had become a mature language with a rich literature.
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The language now spoken in Portugal, and in various countries around the world has changed and evolved. I found this great site by the Camoes Institute that show the different way people speak Portuguese in Portugal.
Check it out here.
When writing Portuguese, I find it interesting that some people throughout the world write it differently then I do - here's a an example which I borrowed from Wikipedia:
The most interesting tidbid I found was that, as a lot of people know, saudade is not translated into English, but it actually is on a top 10 list of the hardest words to translate into the English language. The others are: